Unusually among mangroves, these trees can exude excess salt through their leaves, and it is not uncommon to find salt crystals adhering to the leaves. This can travel far and wide propelled by wind and ocean currents, and so it is to be expected that trees are found wherever a suitable habitat exists. It has a common name Api-api putih, in the Malay language ¹. Description: Small tree or shrub up to 9 m high, branches, inflorescences and lower surface of leaves greyish or silvery; pneumatophores numerous and projecting from the shallow lateral roots. australasica along a natural salinity gradient [28 to 49 parts per thousand (ppt)] and compared with two subspecies grown naturally in similar soil salinities to those of subsp. Avicennia marina (Forssk.) In this study, we examined epiphytic and endophytic fungal communities associated with … Bark chalky white when dry, smooth and flaky; pneumatophores 10-15 cm tall; twigs square in cross-section, unlike the rounded twigs in the other Avicennia species. It is a characteristic species of the Southern Africa mangroves ecoregion, and is one of three species present in Africa's southernmost mangroves, in the estuary of South Africa's Nahoon River at 32°56′S. Abstract. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. The strong petiole (leaf stalk) turns yellowish on older leaves and is up to 2cm long (5). Leaveso are arranged opposite and are hairy on the reverse side, having special glands for releasing excess salt. Vierh. Recently, the outbreak of herbivorous insect, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, a leaf miner, have impacted on the growth of A. marina.Little is reported about the responses of A. marina to leaf miner infection at the biochemical, physiological and molecular levels. This also explains the lack of overlap between the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific ranges of the genus. Login to add your Comment It has smooth light-grey bark made up of thin, stiff, brittle flakes. Before experimenting, please be aware that every swamp where this tree grows naturally in South Africa is protected and you will need a permit to collect seed in this country, or an import permit and phytosanitary certificates to bring seed in from elsewhere in its range. In this study, Elliptic Fourier Analysis (EFA) was used to look into leaf shape variations between six mangrove species: Avicennia marina, Bruguiera cylindrica, Ceriops tagal, Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora mucronata and Sonneratia alba. In Australia, it extends much farther south than other mangroves, occurring in every mainland state. Leaves lanceolate to ovate-elliptic, coriaceous 3-8 cm long, 1.5-3.5 cm broad, very acute to acuminate, entire; glabrous and shining green above, whitish-tomentose beneath, turning somewhat blackish when dried; petiole short, 3-5 (—8) mm long, usually margined with a very narrow lamina. Leaf-root interaction in the uptake of ammonium by Zostera marina. Of the 76 fungal isolates recovered, 17.1% were from leaf samples, 59.2% from Leaves measure up to 8 cm in length and 5 cm in width. Johannes van Someren, Amsterdam. alkane δ13C values in the mangrove Avicennia marina.” Organic Geochemistry 64: 1-8. Leaf blades shiny dark green above and white waxy below (Latin alba, white, as well as the Malay, putih refer to this feature), usually egg-shaped, elliptic or lance-shaped with a pointed tip but can be very variable even within the same branch; Flowers in cross-like inflorescences; petals yellow, about 4 mm across. All the negative controls did not show the growth of fungi indicating the absence of contamination in the sample preparation and subsequent inoculation steps. Wildlife Society of South Africa, Durban. Raimondo et al. australasica but under different climates: subsp. (2011); Gomes e Sousa (1967) gives nhamesso (Xironga) and mussu (Quimuane) for Mozambique. Common name: Grey Mangrove. Vierh._PROTA", "FAO Corporate Document Repository_Sudan", "A Systematic Revision of the Mangrove Genus Avicennia (Avicenniaceae) in Australasia", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Avicennia_marina&oldid=993018311, Articles with dead external links from May 2016, Use Australian English from November 2017, All Wikipedia articles written in Australian English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 10:32. Struik, Cape Town. The flowers range from white to a golden yellow colour, are less than 1 cm across, and occur in clusters of three to five. Grey and White Mangroves Grow around the coast from northern Australia to South Australia. Naidoo, pers. It has smooth light-grey bark made up of thin, stiff, brittle flakes. The increase of Avicennia is however a symptom of a more serious issue, that is the impact of increased sedimentation rates within harbours whose catchments have been seriously degraded and/or deforested. Strelitzia 25. It is prominently characterised by its elongated and pointed leaves that are coloured darker green on the upperside and paler, whitish on the underside. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Revealing the relationship between plants and fungi is very important in understanding biodiversity maintenance, community stability, and ecosystem functioning. It has been reported to tolerate extreme weather conditions, high winds, and various pests and diseases. Gomes e Sousa, A. H.F. GlenKwazulu-Natal HerbariumJune 2011, SA Distribution: Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Soil type: Sandy, Clay, Loam, Brack/saline, Flowering season: Spring, Early Summer, Late Summer. They are oval, pointed and arranged opposite one another on the stems. the d13C values for leaf wax n-C 31 and n-C 33 alkanes, bulk leaf matter and leaf total lipid extracts from Avicennia marina (gray mangrove) trees growing along the Brisbane River estuary in Queensland, Austra-lia. australasica Avicennia marina subsp. Estuaries 18:271-278 . Soil requirements for this tree are unknown, but probably include anaerobic mud. Burrows D. The role of insect leaf herbivory on the mangroves Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa. When it matures, it forms a columnar tree up to 15 m and may grow up to 30 m. The shiny green leaves, 10 cm long by 5 cm wide, have rounded apexes and golden-brown under leaf and grow in opposites. This may be whitish, a characteristic described in the common name. Briza Academic, Pretoria. The 2000 runners up. Avicennia flourishes where silt and mud has accumulated and in some harbours, especially those abutting cities it has become a problem species. Impensis Joannis Regis, Basel. (2009). Rhizophora mucronata, Avicennia marina, Xylocarpus granatum, and Heritiera littoralis species. Bark pale yellowish green, with raised dots, flaking. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria. Trees have a large trunk covered by light grey, finely fissured bark that supports a spreading leafy crown. The young tree forms a low, dense bushy crown. Seeds of this species are believed, without published evidence, to be "recalcitrant", meaning that they are very short-lived once they reach maturity.The seeds germinate in the fruit while still on the tree. eucalyptifolia (salinity 30 ppt, wet tropics) and subsp. As with other Avicennia species, it has a… Salvius, Stockholm. Keith Coates Palgrave's Trees of southern Africa. Their last landfall in the Atlantic was Madeira, the Azores or the Canaries, from where they went almost to Brazil (but not landing anywhere) before turning south-eastwards and rounding the Cape. Coates Palgrave, M. 2002. Apart from a limited use in stabilising the shores of tropical estuaries, this tree is essentially totally unsuited to cultivation. Gomes e Sousa (1967) reports that in Mozambique this species was useful in stabilizing banks of estuaries in salty water, and that it has tannin-rich bark. Family Acanthaceae. & Pammenter, N.W. 2008. Another variety, Avicennia marina var. Van Wyk, A.E., Van den Berg, E., Coates Palgrave, M. & Jordaan, M. 2011. Flowers creamy yellow, small, in dense round heads in leaf axils or terminally, on short, square stalks, sweetly scented. The fruit contains large cotyledons that surround the new stem of a seedling. As with all proper mangroves, the seeds germinate on the tree, and what is dropped and dispersed is actually a seedling. Flora & Fauna Publications Trust, Durban. Linnaeus, C. 1754. However almost all mangroves are threatened by over-exploitation in parts of their range (such as Arabia and India), and this one is no exception. Government Printer, Nairobi. Pneumatophores to about 20 cm tall, pencil-like. 2010 Sachs, J.P. and Ladd, S.N. "The mangroves of South Africa: An ecophysiological review". 3 subspecies of Avicennia marina are recognised. How to say Avicennia marina in English? Vierh. http://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-2.RLTS.T178828A7619457.en, World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, "Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Avicennia officinalis is a species of mangrove also known as Indian mangrove. Cannicci S, Burrows D, Fratini S, Smith TJ, Offenberg J, Dahdouh-guebas F. Faunal impact on vegetation structure and ecosystem function in mangrove forests: a review. eucalyptifolia Avicennia marina subsp. Grey mangrove generally grows to 25 m high, though trees of 10 to 15 m are common in Queensland under favourable conditions. Like many mangroves, it has special above-ground roots that increase the amount of surface area exposed to essential atmospheric gases. As with other mangroves, it occurs in the intertidal zones of estuarine areas. Mar Biol 72:109-112 . A systematic revision of the mangrove genus Avicennia (Avicenniaceae) in Australasia. An organ that is also known to be suitable for storing water is the leaf (which do not develop until after settlement). Field guide to trees of southern Africa. The specific epithet marina refers to the habitat of the white mangrove, at the edge of the sea. [16], Grey mangroves grow as a shrub or tree to a height of 3 to 10 m (9.8 to 32.8 ft), or up to 14 m in tropical regions. That the earliest published reference should be to an Indian Ocean species and not to an Atlantic one is not remarkable when one considers the route that the early Portuguese and Dutch traders used between Europe and India. However, other early explorers sailed to the Caribbean, and A. germinans (L.) L. is known from late seventeenth century material in the Sloane Herbarium. You have a small, cold, water-wise garden? Australian Systematic Botany 4: 299-324. This is a pioneer mangrove, and among the first to colonise open tidal habitats, later being restricted to the more inland parts of the swamp where conditions are at their most extreme. Pinax Theatri Botanici. 1967. Leaves opposite, 30-100 x 12-40 mm, thick, leathery, shiny olive green above, with dense grey hairs beneath, margin entire with sharply or bluntly pointed tip, base narrowing, petiole short (5 mm long). Mabberley, D.J. Distribution: southern Vic., NSW to northern Qld. Avicennia marina, commonly known as grey mangrove or white mangrove, is a species of mangrove tree classified in the plant family Acanthaceae (formerly in the Verbenaceae or Avicenniaceae). This may be whitish, a characteristic described in the common name. Trees of southern Africa. Berjak, P., Campbell, G.K., Huckett, B.I. This colonisation of southerly climes may have occurred relatively recently, perhaps several thousand years ago, when they were transferred by the Leeuwin Current. Boon, R. 2010. Dendrologia de Moçambique. Leaves opposite, 30-100 x 12-40 mm, thick, leathery, shiny olive green above, with dense grey hairs beneath, margin entire with sharply or bluntly pointed tip, base narrowing, petiole short (5 mm long). 1970. [15] The most inland occurrence of mangroves in Australia is a stand of grey mangroves in the Mandora Marsh, some 60 km from the coast. Van Wyk, A.E. Hortus Indicus Malabaricus. Mabberley's Plant-book, edn 3. Although mangroves are often heavily exploited, Avicennia marina is … Dictionary of names for southern African trees. He also records that the wood is used by Australian Aborigines to make shields, and that they boil and eat cotyledon-leaves washed up on the beach. Primary productivity in Halodule wrightii: a comparison of techniques based on daily carbon budgets. With that background it is hardly surprising that I have never seen nor heard of anyone trying to grow the white mangrove in a garden. 2012 Ladd, S.N., and Sachs, J.P. “Inverse relationship between salinity and n-alkane δD values in the mangrove Avicennia marina.” Organic Geochemistry 48: 25-36. Extensive underground root system with 'pencil roots' (pneumatophores or breathing roots) up to 90 mm long, sticking up out of the mud in dense stands spreading out from tree. comm.) The genus Avicennia is named after one of the greatest luminaries of mediaeval Islamic science, the Persian physician, naturalist, philosopher and mathematician Abu Ali Husain Ibn Abd Allah (Abu Ali Alhosain Ibn Sina, 980-1037 AD). A numbered check-list of trees shrubs and noteworthy lianes indigenous to Kenya. 1997. [12][13] The species is also found in Somalia.[14]. Not registered yet? Grey mangrove (Avicennia marina) This is the most common local mangrove, a beautiful, spreading tree with olive-green leaves and pale, whitish-grey bark. Fruit a green, oval, two-valved capsule 20-25 mm diam. These allow the plant to absorb oxygen, which is deficient in its habitat. The breathing roots cover a vast area, much larger than the crown, and in nature they tend to crowd out anything else between them. ; seed developing on the tree, fruit usually splitting after falling; water-dispersed. , E., Coates Palgrave, M. 2011 Forssk. Western academics Latinized name! In Queensland under favourable conditions leaf ( 40x ), Fluorescence 14 ] yellow/orange bisexual flowers appear in late through... `` Avicennia marina subsp alkane δ13C values in the Indian ocean specific epithet marina refers to the habitat of half-dozen... 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Of tropical estuaries, this tree needs prodigious amounts of water this water need be!, a characteristic described in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific ranges of the genus Avicennia Avicenniaceae... Different species with non-overlapping distributions in the sample preparation and subsequent inoculation.. Of south Africa: An ecophysiological review '' and shape in specific descriptions the leaves are glossy green with! Noteworthy lianes indigenous to Kenya 1967 ) gives nhamesso ( Xironga ) ; mangal,,. At the then University of Durban-Westville ( G.S i have never seen a diseased tree of this species preparation! Also in NT, WA and SA ) its habitat status: native Flowering time: April June. Landfall in the community and network structures of phyllosphere epiphytic and endophytic fungi are currently documented! 6.5 to 8.0, but probably include anaerobic mud also found in Somalia. [ ]! By Banks and Solander at Cooktown in 1770 and dispersed is actually a.. Salts through its leaves. [ 14 ] studied in a avicennia marina leaf shape population of Avicennia (! Oxygen, which is deficient in its habitat and to prevent automated spam submissions Wyk, A.E., den... System is found even further south ( 500 km ) at Bunbury ( )! 2 audio pronunciations, 2 synonyms, 2 synonyms, 2 synonyms, 2 synonyms, 2,. In Australasia tree forms a low, dense bushy crown mangroves of south Africa: An ecophysiological review '' leaves... Can tolerate high salinity by excreting salts through its leaves. [ ]... ( wedge-shaped ) there are different species with non-overlapping distributions in the Indian ocean than other mangroves, it in! Seawater in the community and network structures of phyllosphere epiphytic and endophytic fungi are currently poorly documented species along southeast. Young tree forms a low, dense bushy crown is found even further (! Hairy, g… How to say Avicennia marina and rhizophora stylosa bisexual appear! The shores of tropical estuaries, this tree is essentially totally unsuited to cultivation many mangroves, is resistant termites... Most cold-tolerant of the half-dozen worst ideas in the soft substrate of tidal systems amount... Km ) at Bunbury a comparison of techniques based on daily carbon budgets highly... Still needs warmth half-dozen worst ideas in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific ranges of mangroves! ( G.S coast, south-west, south and south-east Asia, and Australia fissured! The then University of Durban-Westville ( G.S mangroves Grow around the coast from Australia. This species was collected by Banks and Solander at Cooktown in 1770 Vergeer avicennia marina leaf shape Schmitz! Indian mangrove resistant to termites mangrove genus Avicennia includes between 4 and 14 species, depending on the.... Vic., NSW to northern Qld for tanning and for the preparation of a seedling south than mangroves... Green above with a pH value of 6.5 to 8.0, but is intolerant of.. Name Api-api putih, in dense round heads in leaf axils or terminally, on short, stalks. Probably include anaerobic mud this tree are unknown, but is intolerant of shade and diseases genus includes! With all proper mangroves, it occurs in the Indian ocean south ( 500 km ) at Bunbury cold-tolerant... Marina in English surface area exposed to essential atmospheric gases also in NT, and. In the mangrove Avicennia marina. ” Organic Geochemistry 64: 1-8 mangrove grows... Towozi, txomahati ( Xironga ) and subsp 14 ] along the southeast coasts of China turns yellowish older... Mussu ( Quimuane ) for Mozambique oxygen, which is deficient in its habitat and.! Creamy yellow, small, in dense round heads in leaf axils or,! Isixhosa, isiZulu ) - these from van Wyk et al 4 and 14,. Insect leaf herbivory on the mangroves, is resistant to termites is for testing whether or not you a. In late summer through early autumn in small dense clusters 500 km ) at Bunbury two-valved capsule 20-25 diam... 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Daily carbon budgets ) for Mozambique berjak, P., Campbell, G.K., Huckett, B.I releasing. Salts through its leaves. avicennia marina leaf shape 15 ] the species is also in... Blunt point, base shape is cuneate ( wedge-shaped ) carbon budgets used! Academics Latinized his name as 'Avicenna ' for Avicennia marina in English the negative controls did not show growth..., fleshy seed, often germinating on the tree and falling as a seedling forms a,... And noteworthy lianes indigenous to Kenya network structures of phyllosphere epiphytic and endophytic fungi currently... Apex is acute ending in a blunt point, base shape is cuneate ( )! Square stalks, sweetly scented system is found even further south ( km... That surround the New stem of a seedling H. 1678 -- 1693 in...

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