Just as verbal language is broken up into various categories, there are also different types of nonverbal communication. Keep biological time in mind as you communicate with others. While some people are comfortable engaging in or watching others engage in PDAs (public displays of affection) others are not. In order to set a positive tone before you start speaking, briefly look at the audience and smile to communicate friendliness, openness, and confidence. (Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, 1995), 59. This move away from physical closeness likely stems from a US norm that restricts men’s physical expression of affection due to homophobia or the worry of being perceived as gay. Pitch helps convey meaning, regulate conversational flow, and communicate the intensity of a message. People’s actions online also mirror the expectations for certain physical characteristics, even when the user doesn’t exhibit those characteristics and didn’t get to choose them for his or her avatar. Thomas, A. R., Soft Landing: Airline Industry Strategy, Service, and Safety (New York, NY: Apress, 2011), 117–23. McKay, M., Martha Davis, and Patrick Fanning, Messages: Communication Skills Book, 2nd ed. Appearance has been noted as one of the most important attributes of an avatar designed to influence or motivate. For example, in a public setting like an airport or a gym where people often make small talk, we can avoid making eye contact with others to indicate that we do not want to engage in small talk with strangers. The inner-personal zone extends from 1.5 feet to 2.5 feet and is a space reserved for communication with people we are interpersonally close to or trying to get to know. Some people experience seasonal affective disorder that leads them to experience emotional distress and anxiety during the changes of seasons, primarily from warm and bright to dark and cold (summer to fall and winter). Our faces are the most expressive part of our body and can communicate an array of different emotions. However, many situations lead to our personal and intimate space being breached by others against our will, and these breaches are more likely to be upsetting, even when they are expected. It may be used alone or as the supplement of verbal communication. The word kinesics comes from the root word kinesis, which means “movement,” and refers to the study of hand, arm, body, and face movements. Although we are never explicitly taught how to use illustrative gestures, we do it automatically. Regulate interaction and provide turn-taking signals, Monitor communication by receiving nonverbal communication from others, Signal cognitive activity (we look away when processing information), Express engagement (we show people we are listening with our eyes). Pease, A. and Barbara Pease, The Definitive Book of Body Language (New York, NY: Bantam, 2004), 121. Most of our communication occurs while we are standing or sitting. Even though we are getting closer to the physical body of another person, we may use verbal communication at this point to signal that our presence in this zone is friendly and not intimate. Research found that we often use nonverbal communication unconsciously. In this hugging behavior, the handshake that is maintained between the chests minimizes physical closeness and the intimacy that may be interpreted from the crisscross or engulfing hug where the majority of the huggers’ torsos are touching. Although this level of touch is not sexual, it does enhance feelings of closeness and intimacy and can lead to sexual-arousal touch, which is the most intimate form of touch, as it is intended to physically stimulate another person. This communication reveals details of who we are and is a part of how we relate to others. Illustrators are the most common type of gesture and are used to illustrate the verbal message they accompany. Although he claims that his avatar is better than any human girlfriend, he has been criticized as being out of touch with reality. For example, doctors can make their patients wait for extended periods of time, and executives and celebrities may run consistently behind schedule, making others wait for them. Nonverbal Communication types are eye contact, facial expressions, gestures, posture and body orientation, proximity, para-linguistic, humor. The video footage of then-president Bill Clinton hugging Monica Lewinsky that emerged as allegations that they had an affair were being investigated shows her holding on, while he was tapping from the beginning of the hug. Use of object adaptors can also signal boredom as people play with the straw in their drink or peel the label off a bottle of beer. My personal weakness is object adaptors. People generally perceive smiles as more genuine when the other person smiles “with their eyes.” This particular type of smile is difficult if not impossible to fake because the muscles around the eye that are activated when we spontaneously or genuinely smile are not under our voluntary control. This type … Touch is a powerful method of nonverbal communication. When the elbows are pointed out, this prevents others from getting past us as easily and is a sign of attempted dominance or a gesture that says we’re ready for action. We typically adjust our volume based on our setting, the distance between people, and the relationship. Posture can indicate assertiveness, defensiveness, interest, readiness, or intimidation, among other things. Men with short hair are generally judged to be more conservative than men with long hair, but men with shaved heads may be seen as aggressive. This drive is shared by many creatures and entities, ranging from packs of animals to individual humans to nations. One interesting standing posture involves putting our hands on our hips and is a nonverbal cue that we use subconsciously to make us look bigger and show assertiveness. While listening, we tend to make more sustained eye contact, not glancing away as regularly as we do while speaking (Martin & Nakayama, 2010). A person’s house, yard, room, desk, side of the bed, or shelf in the medicine cabinet could be considered primary territories. Common self-touching behaviors like scratching, twirling hair, or fidgeting with fingers or hands are considered self-adaptors. Nonverbal communication is most often linked with talking and – more importantly – listening even though we’re not dealing with words. Provide a meaning for each of the following statements based on which word is emphasized: “. Types of Nonverbal Communication Kinesics is the study of how we use body movement and facial expressions.We interpret a great deal of meaning through body movement, facial expressions, and eye contact. Additionally, research has shown that crowding can lead to criminal or delinquent behavior, known as a “mob mentality” (Andersen, 1999). There are three main types of gestures: adaptors, emblems, and illustrators (Andersen, 1999). People now wear various types of rubber bracelets, which have become a popular form of social cause marketing, to indicate that they identify with the “Livestrong” movement or support breast cancer awareness and research. I think of this type of hug as the “slow-dance hug.” The engulfing hug is similar to a bear hug in that one person completely wraps the arms around the other as that person basically stands there. 1 (2010): 42. Secondary territories don’t belong to us and aren’t exclusively under our control, but they are associated with us, which may lead us to assume that the space will be open and available to us when we need it without us taking any further steps to reserve it. In terms of head movements, a head nod is a universal sign of acknowledgement in cultures where the formal bow is no longer used as a greeting. Advantages of Nonverbal Communication in Business. For example, smiling when you meet someone conveys friendliness, acceptance and openness. This zone allows for relatively intimate communication but doesn’t convey the intimacy that a closer distance would, which can be beneficial in professional settings. It is also possible to have people in the outer portion of our social zone but not feel obligated to interact with them, but when people come much closer than six feet to us then we often feel obligated to at least acknowledge their presence. This positive power of touch is countered by the potential for touch to be threatening because of its connection to sex and violence. 1 (2009): 1–25. Why or why not? For example, a head up typically indicates an engaged or neutral attitude, a head tilt indicates interest and is an innate submission gesture that exposes the neck and subconsciously makes people feel more trusting of us, and a head down signals a negative or aggressive attitude (Pease & Pease, 2004). Getting to see the pure and innate expressions of joy and surprise on a baby’s face is what makes playing peek-a-boo so entertaining for adults. Figure 4.1 Proxemic Zones of Personal Space. Types of Nonverbal Communication 9 Major Nonverbal Behaviors By Kendra Cherry Updated May 09, 2017 According to experts, a substantial portion of our communication is nonverbal. A light touch from one dater will be followed by a light touch from the other to indicate that the first touch was OK. Types of nonverbal communication The many different types of nonverbal communication or body language include: Facial expressions. People typically find pleasing voices that employ vocal variety and are not monotone, are lower pitched (particularly for males), and do not exhibit particular regional accents. Personal presentation involves two components: our physical characteristics and the artifacts with which we adorn and surround ourselves. In regular social situations, adaptors result from uneasiness, anxiety, or a general sense that we are not in control of our surroundings. Public and social zones refer to the space four or more feet away from our body, and the communication that typically occurs in these zones is formal and not intimate. Business Communication: 7 Types of Non verbal communication are: Face Expression, Gesture, Eye Contact, Posture, Voice, Space, Touch. Jones, S. E., “Communicating with Touch,” in The Nonverbal Communication Reader: Classic and Contemporary Readings, 2nd ed., eds. As with volume, variations in speaking rate can interfere with the ability of others to receive and understand verbal messages. If you haven’t ever constructed an avatar, what would you make your avatar look like and why? I’ve seen this type of hug go on for many seconds and with varying degrees of force involved in the slap. The slap hug is also a less physically intimate hug and involves a hug with one or both people slapping the other person’s back repeatedly, often while talking to each other. Once communication begins, if it does, eye contact helps establish rapport or connection. Toward the end of our speaking turn, we make more direct eye contact with our listener to indicate that we are finishing up. When students have more personal information to discuss, they will come closer, which brings them into the inner part of the social zone. Some self-adaptors manifest internally, as coughs or throat-clearing sounds. Whether a person has a part in their hair, a mohawk, faux-hawk, ponytail, curls, or bright pink hair also sends nonverbal signals to others. Jewelry can also send messages with varying degrees of direct meaning. So as the daters sit across from each other, one person may lightly tap the other’s arm after he or she said something funny. Smartphones have become common object adaptors, as people can fiddle with their phones to help ease anxiety. I find hugging behavior particularly interesting, perhaps because of my experiences growing up in a very hug-friendly environment in the Southern United States and then living elsewhere where there are different norms. Research shows that the line between reality and virtual reality can become blurry when it comes to avatar design and identification. Why? Touch is also used in many other contexts—for example, during play (e.g., arm wrestling), during physical conflict (e.g., slapping), and during conversations (e.g., to get someone’s attention) (Jones, 1999). Also, cultural customs must be taken into consideration as well. At times, silence is said to the best form of non-verbal communication. When our natural rhythms are disturbed, by all-nighters, jet lag, or other scheduling abnormalities, our physical and mental health and our communication competence and personal relationships can suffer. Types of nonverbal communication and body language There are many different types of nonverbal communication. We’ve all had to get into a crowded elevator or wait in a long line. Some types of hugs are the crisscross hug, the neck-waist hug, and the engulfing hug (Floyd, 2006). Chronemics also covers the amount of time we spend talking. Verbal fillers such as “um,” “uh,” “like,” and “ah” are common in regular conversation and are not typically disruptive. Although the TSA has made some changes to security screening procedures and have announced more to come, some passengers have started a backlash of their own. The study of clothing and other objects as a means of non-verbal communication is known as artifactics or objectics. To better understand how proxemics functions in nonverbal communication, we will more closely examine the proxemic distances associated with personal space and the concept of territoriality. A half-empty cup of coffee may be seen as trash and thrown away, which would be an annoying surprise to a person who left it to mark his or her table while visiting the restroom. The neck-waist hug usually occurs in more intimate relationships as it involves one person’s arms around the other’s neck and the other person’s arms around the other’s waist. We have already discussed the importance of touch in nonverbal communication, and in order for that much-needed touch to occur, people have to enter our intimate space. Facial expressions can communicate that a speaker is tired, excited, angry, confused, frustrated, sad, confident, smug, shy, or bored. Although I don’t intend to take someone’s seat, on more than one occasion, I’ve been met by the confused or even glaring eyes of a student whose routine is suddenly interrupted when they see me sitting in “their seat.”. Paralinguistics, meaning tone, pitch, loudness, inflection and rhythm of your voice is considered one of the nonverbal communication types. However, the triggers for these expressions and the cultural and social norms that influence their displays are still culturally diverse. Types of non-verbal communication. This can become even more pronounced when we consider that some users, especially of online role-playing games, spend about twenty hours a week as their avatar. At the social-polite level, socially sanctioned touching behaviors help initiate interactions and show that others are included and respected. An innate and universal head movement is the headshake back and forth to signal “no.” This nonverbal signal begins at birth, even before a baby has the ability to know that it has a corresponding meaning. Chapter 1: Introduction to Communication Studies, 4.1 Principles and Functions of Nonverbal Communication, 5.4 Listenable Messages and Effective Feedback, Chapter 6: Interpersonal Communication Processes, 6.1 Principles of Interpersonal Communication, 6.2 Conflict and Interpersonal Communication, 6.3 Emotions and Interpersonal Communication, 6.4 Self-Disclosure and Interpersonal Communication, Chapter 7: Communication in Relationships, 8.2 Exploring Specific Cultural Identities, 8.4 Intercultural Communication Competence, 9.2 Researching and Supporting Your Speech, 10.2 Delivery Methods and Practice Sessions, Chapter 11: Informative and Persuasive Speaking, Chapter 12: Public Speaking in Various Contexts, 12.1 Speaking in Personal and Civic Contexts, Chapter 14: Leadership, Roles, and Problem Solving in Groups, 14.1 Leadership and Small Group Communication, 14.3 Problem Solving and Decision Making in Groups, Chapter 15: Media, Technology, and Communication, 15.1 Technological Advances: From the Printing Press to the iPhone, 15.2 Functions and Theories of Mass Communication, 16.3 New Media, the Self, and Relationships. There are three main divisions for territory: primary, secondary, and public (Hargie, 2011). The following is a review of the various communicative functions of vocalics: Proxemics refers to the study of how space and distance influence communication. If two people held up their arms and stood so just the tips of their fingers were touching, they would be around four feet away from each other, which is perceived as a safe distance because the possibility for intentional or unintentional touching doesn’t exist. Mar-14-11 Human Communication 1 3 Types of Non Verbal Communication (NVC) Proxemics: physical space in communication Movement and body position * Kinesics * Posture * Gesture * Haptics: touching in communication Cultural time refers to how a large group of people view time. Voices vary in terms of resonance, pitch, and tone, and some voices are more pleasing than others. This fact, along with media images that project often unrealistic ideals of beauty, have contributed to booming health and beauty, dieting, gym, and plastic surgery industries. Our tone of voice can be controlled somewhat with pitch, volume, and emphasis, but each voice has a distinct quality known as a vocal signature. To learn about the power of touch, we turn to haptics, which refers to the study of communication by touch. Nonverbal communication can be categorized into eight types: space, time, physical characteristics, body movements, touch, paralanguage, artifacts, and environment. These social smiles, however, are slightly but perceptibly different from more genuine smiles. There may be some small adjustments during the first couple of weeks, but by a month into the semester, I don’t notice students moving much voluntarily. It I have taught fifty-minute classes that seemed to drag on forever and three-hour classes that zipped by. The objects that surround us send nonverbal cues that may influence how people perceive us. Attractiveness, coolness (in terms of clothing and hairstyle), and age were shown to be factors that increase or decrease the influence an avatar has over users (Baylor, 2011). Much research has supported the universality of a core group of facial expressions: happiness, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust. Verbal fillers in more formal settings, like a public speech, can hurt a speaker’s credibility. A limp, weak, or retreating hug may communicate anger, ambivalence, or annoyance. A ring on the “ring finger” of a person’s left hand typically indicates that they are married or in an otherwise committed relationship. 非言語コミュニケーション（ひげんごコミュニケーション、英語: non-verbal communication）とは、言葉以外の手段を用いたコミュニケーション（メッセージのやり取り）のこと。 略号でNVCとも。 Head movements and posture include the orientation of movements of our head and the orientation and positioning of our body and the various meanings they send. Additionally, the way we use time depends in some ways on our status. Our eyes bring in the visual information we need to interpret people’s movements, gestures, and eye contact. At the functional-professional level, touch is related to a goal or part of a routine professional interaction, which makes it less threatening and more expected. We have social norms about how much eye contact we make with people, and those norms vary depending on the setting and the person. So what happens when our space is violated? Even people who know each other could be uncomfortable spending too much time in this zone unnecessarily. A louder voice is usually thought of as more intense, although a soft voice combined with a certain tone and facial expression can be just as intense. Avatars can be created in the likeness of humans, animals, aliens, or other nonhuman creatures (Allmendinger, 2010). In terms of regulating communication, we use eye contact to signal to others that we are ready to speak or we use it to cue others to speak. As we learned, eye contact is a key immediacy behavior, and it signals to others that we are available for communication. At the friendship-warmth level, touch is more important and more ambiguous than at the social-polite level. While, paralanguage consists of communicating orally, except for the use of words. Below, you will find a discussion of the main types of non-verbal communication. Think about people who have very distinct voices. Time can be classified into several different categories, including biological, personal, physical, and cultural time (Andersen, 1999). If this is a setting in which this type of density is expected beforehand, like at a crowded concert or on a train during rush hour, then we make various communicative adjustments to manage the space issue. Humans follow a circadian rhythm, meaning that we are on a daily cycle that influences when we eat, sleep, and wake. While many expressions we make are overt and very visible, some are covert. Being close to someone and feeling their physical presence can be very comforting when words fail. Even within a particular zone, interactions may differ depending on whether someone is in the outer or inner part of the zone. A hitchhiker’s raised thumb, the “OK” sign with thumb and index finger connected in a circle with the other three fingers sticking up, and the raised middle finger are all examples of emblems that have an agreed-on meaning or meanings with a culture. In terms of regular interaction, we are often not obligated or expected to acknowledge or interact with people who enter our public zone. If your date advances a touch and you are not interested, it is also unlikely that you will come right out and say, “Sorry, but I’m not really interested.” Instead, due to common politeness rituals, you would be more likely to respond with other forms of nonverbal communication like scooting back, crossing your arms, or simply not acknowledging the touch. We also communicate through eye behaviors, primarily eye contact. These zones are reserved for friends, close acquaintances, and significant others. Students in large lecture classes should consider sitting within the social zone of the professor, since students who sit within this zone are more likely to be remembered by the professor, be acknowledged in class, and retain more information because they are close enough to take in important nonverbal and visual cues. Public space starts about twelve feet from a person and extends out from there. So make sure your facial expressions are communicating an emotion, mood, or personality trait that you think your audience will view favorably, and that will help you achieve your speech goals. Describe an avatar that you have created for yourself. EXERCISES Do a … Just as we can trace the history of a word, or its etymology, we can also trace some nonverbal signals, especially emblems, to their origins. It … There are different Nonverbal Communication types some of which are discussed below: Beside the above mentioned types there may be some other forms of nonverbal communication media like traffic signals, printed pictures, posters, slides, danger mark, fragile mark, charts etc. We do not pick up on some more subtle and/or complex patterns of paralanguage involving pitch until we are older. The placement of objects and furniture in a physical space can help create a formal, distant, friendly, or intimate climate. When we lose connection with someone, we may say he or she is “distant.” In general, space influences how people communicate and behave. Some other types of hugs are the “shake-first-then-tap hug” and the “back-slap hug.” I observe that these hugs are most often between men. The physical location, size, and number of tattoos and piercings play a large role in whether or not they are deemed appropriate for professional contexts, and many people with tattoos and/or piercings make conscious choices about when and where they display their body art. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Provide examples of types of nonverbal communication that fall under these categories. People with past-time orientations may want to reminisce about the past, reunite with old friends, and put considerable time into preserving memories and keepsakes in scrapbooks and photo albums. Biological time refers to the rhythms of living things. 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