Significant relationship found only for coral reefs. We also gratefully acknowledge support from the Lyda Hill Foundation, a Pew Fellowship in Marine Conservation to MWB, and the World Bank WAVES program. Nature-based defences refer to restoration projects that specifically include coastal protection as an objective (definitions adapted from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers report on Natural and Nature-based Features [12]). Mangroves and seagrass/kelp beds are not discussed due to the lack of comparable data on design parameters for these habitats. within the near-shore zone, and choose submerged breakwaters as the best alternative. the ratio B/L, where B is the width of the reef and L the length of the incoming wave [53,54]. Summary of Background Papers by José Antonio Ocampo, Columbia University. Affiliation Circle sizes in (a) indicate the % wave height reduction measured at each site; shapes in (b) indicate type of coastal protection benefit reported (erosion control, flood control, or protection to structures) (see Table 1). years, reinforce the policy and legal basis of sustainable development in Kenya. Therefore, information on restoration costs was combined with data from nearby measurements of wave heights to estimate the wave reduction benefits of each restoration project. No, Is the Subject Area "Mangrove swamps" applicable to this article? The literature search did not find any projects within seagrass or kelp beds that met these criteria. Impacts of Deep Horizon 2010 oil spill cost 62 billion USD to British Petroleum (USA Today, 2016), and the cost of oil spills following shipwreck of oil tankers, such as the Prestige at the Spanish and Portuguese coasts in 2002, were estimated in billion dollars (Loureiro et al. In coral reefs, wave reduction is influenced by a) reef width (S2 Fig); b) reef depth relative to the wave height and; c) reef width relative to the average wavelength (S3 Fig). Reducing your use of raw materials can cut your costs, minimise your waste and lower your waste disposal bills - see how to reduce your business waste to save money . In general, sustainable components for new development would fall under the same categories as sustainability in its overall context. Sustainability And Development Of Sustainability 1422 Words | 6 Pages. scrutinized over 200 peer-reviewed scientific papers from which they identified 94 restoration case studies with meaningful cost data . Fig 3 plots the total restoration costs of mangrove and marsh projects along with breakwater construction costs at these sites for a range of depths and wave height reduction values. The scenario study ‘The Future of the North Sea’ explores the spatial and ecological impact of possible developments on the North Sea, up to 2050, with regard to nature, energy transition and food supply. Field evidence of the protection offered by habitats is generally difficult to obtain. We declare that this does not alter our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials. Competing interests: We note that one author is employed by a commercial company, Deltares, Rotterdamsweg 185, 2629HD Delft, The Netherlands. Risks of higher inflation and higher interest rates. The coastal setting and exposure data for each project location are derived from other sources (see S1 Methods). Simplified submerged breakwater cross-section for replacement cost estimates, showing parameters that affect wave transmission. wave reduction, as well as location–i.e. is also emphasised by Koch et al., [26] who demonstrate spatial and temporal variations in wave reduction capacities across habitats. Based on existing literature it was assumed that breakwater construction costs are uniform across the sites in Europe/USA and ten times lower for the sites in Vietnam [28]. (2005) and US Army Corps of Engineers (2015b). encompass 17 goals, each with multiple underlying targets and associated data indicatorsto be , achieved by 2030. Circles represent NbDs and lines represent submerged breakwaters cost-curves in both panels. The first two parameters—Hi/h and B/L are dependent on the incoming wave height. There is also a growing interest in developing guidance about habitat restoration for nature-based defences but this has largely been identified based more on case studies than syntheses [12,18,19]. First we extend previous syntheses of wave reduction field measurements in coastal habitats [21,22,23] to include more measurements and improve understanding of the variability across habitats in reducing wave heights, focusing in particular on engineering parameters that will be critical in assessing and designing restoration projects. This paper is, as far as the authors are aware, the first attempt at synthesising evidence from field measurements and restoration projects to provide an overview of the wave reduction by natural defences, in combination with site-specific comparisons of the costs of nature-based defences versus alternative structures. Ideally, project costs, site conditions and wave reduction extents should be measured at the same location. Variations in wave height measurements at each site are accounted for within the analyses (see S1 Methods). Only recently has the issues established extensive attention within society, sustainable development is acknowledged by the majority to mean ‘development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’ (Commission 1987). This reduction in wave height depends on habitat and site-specific ecological and geophysical parameters that influence the dynamics of incoming waves (Fig 1). Credits: Esri, HERE, DeLorme, NGA, USGS | Esri, HERE, DeLorme. Water depth is a crucial factor, with both habitats showing an increase in cost effectiveness at higher depths, due to the relatively steep increase in breakwater construction costs. ), Biological Impacts of Ocean Acidification, Socioeconomic Impacts of Ocean Acidification, Overfishing and Destructive Fishing Threats, sea-level rise and changes in storm patterns, reduced through effective planning and land use regulations. Almost all the studies provide information on habitat width, and most measurements in reefs also provide information on reef depth. However, when analysing extreme value measurements, it will be necessary to include analyses of variances to assess the effect on wave reduction. on the coastal protection and risk reduction costs and benefits of projects involving restoration and management of coastal habitats. This is particularly important for a future where variations in rates of sea-level rise and other environmental factors can result in a spatial variability in wave heights [50,51]. We (i) analyse data from sixty-nine field measurements in coastal habitats globally and examine measures of effectiveness of mangroves, salt-marshes, coral reefs and seagrass/kelp beds for wave height reduction; (ii) synthesise the costs and coastal protection benefits of fifty-two nature-based defence projects and; (iii) estimate the benefits of each restoration project by combining information on restoration costs with data from nearby field measurements. The influence of bathymetry on wave height reduction was not accounted for, except where the study reported measurements from adjacent transects with and without the habitat. Analyzed the data: SN MWB BGR BvW IJL. In many areas, wide shallow reef flats have been reclaimed and converted to airports, industrial, or urban lands. NbDs that fall below breakwater cost curves are cost effective in comparison. This relates to how people grasp and achieve sustainable development. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154735, Editor: Maura (Gee) Geraldine Chapman, University of Sydney, AUSTRALIA, Received: January 11, 2016; Accepted: April 18, 2016; Published: May 2, 2016. This suggests that designs of ‘greenbelts’ for coastal protection, rather than only relying on width-based criteria [24,25], should also account for the relationships between habitat and hydrodynamic variables at each site. It is also perceived that the short term costs of sustainable practices are too high to justify their application in a highly competitive market. A key parameter in intertidal vegetated habitats such as mangroves and marshes is the relative height of the vegetation i.e. A replacement cost ratio for each NbD based on the cost of the replacement breakwater, Cstruc and the cost of the NbD, CNbD was then calculated: It is important to consider where individuals and society derive their well-being from. the ratio hv/h, where hv is the height of the vegetation canopy and h the water depth. Australia’s Clean Economy Future: Costs and Benefits Issues Paper No. Hard engineering strategies - advantages and disadvantages. For example, Southeast Asia, the Pacific, and the Caribbean discharge 80-90% of their wastewater untreated into the sea. Meta-analyses of the effect of habitat on wave reduction were done for sixty-nine studies in coral reefs, salt-marshes, mangroves, seagrass beds and kelp beds (Fig 2A), that provide measurements of wave height with /without coastal habitats. Therefore, studies that only report wave reduction ratios–i.e. In vegetated habitats, the height, geometry and shoot/stem density of the habitat, have all been shown to affect wave reduction in flume studies and models [55,56,57]. No, Is the Subject Area "Flooding" applicable to this article? Local impacts of land-based sources of stress will occur in combination with global and regional stressors, such as climate change, land-use practices, and freshwater inputs, further threatening the survival of coral reef ecosystems. The assistance and support of Dr. Filippo Ferrario, Laval University, Québec, is also gratefully acknowledged. The major economic benefits of sustainable construction are reduced operation and utility costs, reduced maintenance costs, and an overall improvement in the buildings performance and efficiency [ 14 ] . In any case, policy decisions on where and how to conserve or restore habitats, rather than focusing on a single service, should consider multiple objectives for best allocation of available resources [36,37]. While accurate estimates of construction costs require detailed information on structure profile, material and labour costs, etc., water depth is often a critical driver of construction costs [29] and therefore the main influence on cost effectiveness. Sustainable Development The International Institute for Sustainable Development refers to the 'Brundtland Report' whom define the term sustainable development as development that meets the needs of the present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. In some cases, a project site could be paired with multiple field measurements (see S4 Table). Yes Field measurements of % wave height reduction versus non-dimensional parameter, hv/h in salt-marshes (n = 8). the ratio H/h where h is the depth of the reef and H the wave height; and (ii) the relative width, i.e. Impacts of Deep Horizon 2010 oil spill cost 62 billion USD to British Petroleum (USA Today, 2016), and the cost of oil spills following shipwreck of oil tankers, such as the Prestige at the Spanish and Portuguese coasts in 2002, were estimated in billion dollars (Loureiro et al. Oceans, seas and coastal areas form an integrated and essential component of the Earth’s ecosystem and are critical to sustainable development. length of the habitat transect). Colours indicate habitat groups in both panels. This is not true. [5] The breakwater was assumed to have a trapezoidal section with a representative slope, s of 1:1.5 (S6 Fig). Sustainable development, especially since the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment & Development at Rio de Janeiro, has become an increasingly important theme in local, national and world politics, and increasingly a central theme for the engineering professions around the world.The sustainable development concept Dredging activities (e.g., deep-water channels, harbors, marinas) and dumping of waste materials in the coastal and marine environment can also damage and destroy adjacent coral reefs. Field measurements of % wave height reduction are plotted versus non-dimensional engineering parameters: (a) Hi/h in reefs (left, n = 27), red line indicates depth-limiting ratio for wave height, Hi/h = 0.78; (b) B/L in coral reefs (right, n = 34). The official wording is to "Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development". These nature-based defence projects are first analysed for their costs and benefits for coastal protection. More such comparisons with hard alternatives, along with detailed and consistent data on the extents, costs and coastal protection benefits of existing restoration projects, are needed to inform the design and implementation of future nature-based defences. the submergence of the vegetation relative to the water level (S4 Fig). Insights on the success or failure of projects, and comparisons with hard structures that perform similarly, under the same conditions, are difficult to obtain [20]. For example, planning and management approaches can include land-use zoning plans and regulations, … The breakwaters were assumed to be constructing using rock or rubble-mound, as this is the most commonly employed material world-wide. To provide a direct comparison of restoration projects with engineering alternatives, the costs of restoration projects were compared to the costs of structures that would achieve the same wave reduction. Cost reporting in the project dataset is highly variable: of the 52 projects, fourteen do not report any costs, seventeen report total restoration costs, nine report costs on a per-m2 basis, nine on a per-hectare basis, two as per-metre coastline length and one as per-kilometre coastline length (S3 Table). Analyses of the costs and wave reduction of thirteen nature-based defence projects (see Methods, S4 Table) in mangroves and salt-marshes show that these projects can be several times cheaper than alternative submerged breakwaters (Fig 3) for the same level of protection. Development projects in the coastal zone often increase climate change adaptation costs. Coastal Development. Table 1.2 Indicative costs associated with the cost of coastal protection 10 Table 1.3 Key cost considerations for coastal works 11 Table 1.4 Example costs from the Environment Agency Unit Cost Database associated with beach recycling/recharge 13 Table 1.5 Example costs from the Environment Agency Unit Cost Database associated with coastal walls 14 Green shipping is the concept of sustainable development applied to the shipping sector, incorporating environmental and social responsibility. No, Is the Subject Area "Metaanalysis" applicable to this article? Similarly, no wave reduction field measurements within oyster reefs were found. here. ... Plans are afoot to build huge islands and giant constructions in coastal areas, ... that bring a start-up mentality to urban development. ... cost-benefit … De Groot et al. Other coastal protection benefits include savings in damages during storm events, reductions in erosion and reductions in the costs of engineering for coastal protection, reflected, in a few cases, by positive benefit-cost ratios (e.g. But critical questions remain about when these projects can be used effectively for coastal protection, for example about the costs of a habitat restoration project relative to other, more conventional alternatives. Fig only shows mangroves and marshes as these were the only habitat types and locations for which project information was found in close proximity to field measurements. estimated costs and benefits (S3 Table). We only searched for projects that were targeted at coastal protection and reported sufficient information on costs and habitat characteristics for further analyses (see S1 Methods, S3 Table). Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America, Affiliation 2.LonG term management between means and resources for future generation. ref The impacts of coastal development can be drastically reduced through effective planning and land use regulations. There is great interest in the restoration and conservation of coastal habitats for protection from flooding and erosion. It will also be critical to get similar field measurements of wave and water level reductions by habitats during extreme events [47]. Cost-benefit analysis can provide a comprehensive picture of the net impact of projects and help direct funds to where their development effectiveness is highest. The government adopted mainstreaming SDGs into institutional plans as its main strategy to achieve SDGs. Average effect size as log response ratio of the wave reduction, R due to each habitat type for coral reefs, salt-marshes, mangroves and seagrass/kelp beds. Sustainable Development. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click On Balance: The Persistence of Appraisal Optimism in Benefit-Cost Analysis. Coastal development causes loss of semi-natural and natural land, destruction and fragmentation of coastal habitats, and is also related to increased erosion levels and increased discharge of diffuse pollution and marine litter to the marine environment. Salt-marshes are almost as effective in terms of wave reduction but occur in more sheltered environments. Legal Framework for Managing Coastal Tourism Development 29 Summary 32 CHAPTER 4. Only a few studies–all in marshes, provide information on vegetation heights. [7], Using the rate of reduction and project width the total wave reduction by each NbD was estimated and expressed as a transmission coefficient, Kt–NbD. These analyses and syntheses demonstrate the following: a) coastal habitats–particularly coral reefs and salt-marshes–have significant potential for reducing wave heights and providing protection at the shoreline; b) restoration projects for which data are available–i.e., mangrove and marsh projects–can be cost-effective relative to submerged breakwaters in attenuating low waves and become more cost-effective at higher water depths; c) a number of nature-based defence projects, especially in mangroves and marshes, have been observed to offer protection during storms. Sustainable Development. Answer: Sustainable development must include a design that holistically accounts for and minimizes all aspects of environmental, economic, and anthropogenic impacts. Coastal Planning and Engineering, CH2M HILL / University of Southampton, Swindon, United Kingdom, Affiliation The cost-comparisons to alternative breakwaters were limited to habitats for which field measurement and project sites could be paired, which were only in mangroves and salt-marshes (see Nature-based defence project costs benefits and cost-effectiveness in this section). Environment and Natural Resources Global Practice, The World Bank, Washington, DC, United States of America, Affiliation Mean wave height values are used for the meta-analyses. Funding: This research was primarily supported by the by SNAP: Science for Nature and People, a collaboration of The Nature Conservancy, the Wildlife Conservation Society and the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). Restoration objectives vary across habitat types, with most mangrove and marsh habitats reporting coastal protection as a primary objective. The paper also synthesises information on the benefits of restoration projects for coastal protection. Studies that did not report data on either costs or benefits were also excluded. Erosion is a natural process which shapes cliffs. The definition of sustainable development has provided a big step forward. 3.4 Coastal and Marine Resources 31 3.4.1 National programmes and plans ... 7.1 Key challenges for sustainable development 54 7.2 Key opportunities for sustainable development 55 7.3 Key priorities for sustainable development 56 7.4 Challenges, Needs and Priorities for future MSI Implementation 57 Percentage wave height reduction versus a) relative wave height and b) relative width in coral reefs. Yes No, Is the Subject Area "Habitats" applicable to this article? No, Is the Subject Area "Seaweed" applicable to this article? Catálogo de Buenas Prácticas de uso del Suelo, Manejo del Paisaje y Construcción en la zona Costera de Quintana Rooopens PDF file. Deforestation and clearing of vegetation can result in increases in sedimentation in coastal waters. Values in brackets indicate 95% confidence intervals. Reducing the effects of coastal development is critically important; it threatens nearly 25% of the world’s coral reefs, particularly in Southeast Asia, and the Indian and the Atlantic oceans. The extent to which bathymetry influences wave height reduction varies between habitat types and, in most cases, bathymetry is either a direct function of habitat presence (in reefs) or has a relatively minor influence on wave height reduction (in mangroves and salt-marshes). Excess nutrients promote growth of macroalgae that can overgrow corals and prevent larval recruitment. In addition, coastal habitats are facing increasing risks world-wide as a result of human activity. In estimating breakwater costs, a constant representative crest width, W of 2 m was assumed. 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